Will the new sugar tax work?

Will the new sugar tax work?

This month, the much anticipated sugar tax came into force in the UK. So what it is, why was it introduced and – most importantly – will it have any impact?

The tax
Soft drinks companies are now required to pay a levy on drinks with certain levels of added sugar:

  • 18p per litre of drink if the product contains more than 5g of sugar per 100ml
  • 24p per litre if it contains 8g of sugar per 100ml.

The tax does not apply to milk-based drinks, due to their calcium content. It also excludes fruit juice or vegetable juice that don’t have added sugar.

Foods such as cakes, biscuits and other sugar containing foods aren’t covered, but there is a separate initiative to reduce their sugar content by 20% by 2020.

Why was it introduced?
The tax has been introduced in an effort to tackle childhood obesity. The latest National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) showed that sugar-sweetened drinks are the single highest source of free sugars for children and teenagers. This is why soft drinks have been targeted.

Action already taken by the industry
An estimated 50 per cent of manufacturers have already reduced the sugar content of their drinks to avoid the new tax, including leading brands:

  • Fanta – reduced sugar from 6.9g (a little under 2 tsp) to 4.6g (just over 1 tsp) per 100ml.
  • Ribena – from 10g (2.5 tsp) to less than 4.5g (just over 1 tsp) per 100ml.
  • Lucozade – from 13g (just over 3 tsp) to less than 4.5g (just over 1 tsp) per 100ml.
  • Irn Bru – from 10.3g (2.5 tsp) to 4.7g (just over 1 tsp) per 100ml.

Others remain the same, for example Coca-Cola (10.6g per 100ml, just over 2.5 tsp) and Pepsi (11g per 100ml, just under 3 tsp). These manufacturers have to decide whether to bear the cost of the tax increase themselves, or pass it on to consumers.

In one leading supermarket, the cost of a 2L bottle of Pepsi went up by 45p when the tax was introduced. By contrast, Coca Cola kept the price the same but reduced the portion size: a 1.75L bottle has shrunk to 1.5L bottle.

Will it work?
A survey by Mintel of 2,000 people found that just under half (47%) of Brits say that a tax making unhealthy food or drink more expensive would encourage them to cut down on these items. So the measure will hopefully have some effect.

It’s extremely positive that some food manufacturers have already taken action to reduce the sugar content of their recipes. However, the feedback hasn’t always been positive about the new taste of much-loved products (reduced sugar Lucozade and Irn Bru, for example). And a significant proportion of people will simply pay more for the same recipe high-sugar drink they’ve always enjoyed.

We’re also concerned that drinks that fell outside of taxable products, such as fruit juice, often still have high levels of free sugars. The National Health Service discusses maximum intakes of free sugars for all ages.

What happens now?
Drinks manufacturers have made an initial decision on whether to reduce sugar levels to avoid the new taxation or to leave sugar levels unaltered. They’ll be closely monitoring orders from retailers to assess the effectiveness of their initial decision. If it proves that sales of reduced-sugar drinks increases, other manufacturers may be keen to follow suit.

Drinks retailers will need to carefully monitor demand for those reduced-sugar drinks vs unaltered recipes that are subject to the tax, to satisfy any changes in demand.

The Mintel research found that three quarters of consumers say that easier-to-understand nutritional information on product packaging would encourage them to cut down on unhealthy food/drink. We’d love to see improved labelling too, to see what the impact could be.

Takeaway message
It’s going to take months and years to assess the impact the tax has on the nation’s health. And, of course, obesity is caused by many factors. Clearly multiple strategies including education will be needed to combat the problem. We’ll be monitoring closely to see whether the action has any impact on those most affected by obesity – those in the lower socio-economic bracket and children.

Do you agree it’s a step in the right direction? Should the Government be focussing on something else to better address the problem?

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Health warnings for salt in Chinese takeaways: Nutrilicious News Digest

Health warnings for salt in Chinese takeaways: Nutrilicious News Digest

Coinciding with Salt Awareness Week, this week the BBC, the Daily Mail, the Independent and many more reported on how high salt content in Chinese takeaway meals from restaurants and supermarkets.

The news follows analysis published by Action on Salt, who are calling for health warnings to be mandatory.

Keep this in mind as you read on: The maximum daily allowance for adults is 6g per day (about one teaspoon).

Here are some of the key points from the study…

Chinese takeaway meals

Six independent restaurants in London’s Chinatown were analysed

  • 97% of dishes contained 2g (1/3 of a teaspoon) or more of salt per dish.
  • 58% contained more than 3g (1/2 teaspoon) of salt per dish.
  • Combining side dishes on top would provide over 6g (over 1 teaspoon – the maximum daily allowance for adults) salt per day.
  • The saltiest takeaway main meal with a rice/noodle side dish contained 11.50g of salt (about 2 teaspoons) (Beef in Black Bean Sauce and Vegetable Noodles).
  • Variation was seen between the same dishes but from different restaurants. For example, sweet and sour dishes ranged from 1g to 3.4g of salt per portion.
  • On average, beef in black bean sauce dishes were the highest in salt (1.27g per 100g) and sweet and sour dishes were the least salty (0.54g per 100g).

Supermarket ready meals

141 ready meals were surveyed

  • Nearly half (43%) were high in salt (containing over 1.5g per 100g or over 1.8g salt per portion). These meals would be coded as ‘red’ under salt on the food traffic light labelling system.
  • The highest in salt was Slimming World’s Chinese Style Banquet Rice with 4.40g salt (about 2/3 teaspoon salt) per 550g pack.
  • As well as main dishes found to be high in salt, side dishes such as rice dishes, spring rolls and prawn crackers could easily tot up the salt levels. One example of Egg Fried Rice (Iceland’s Takeaway Egg Fried Rice) contained 4.1g (2/3 teaspoon) salt per 350g pack. That’s more salt than is in 11 ready salted bags of crisps!
  • Variation was apparent, with Tesco’s Egg Fried Rice containing only 0.1g salt per 250g.

For more detailed findings, see the original analysis PDF

 

Behind the headlines: the Nutrilicious dietetic view

Points to consider
As ever, we need to note any limitations of the report. While the analysis included a large number of supermarket ready meals, the restaurant analysis was only conducted on six restaurants in London Chinatown, so we cannot be confident findings will be the same elsewhere. Plus, it’s clear that salt levels will vary between restaurants and between meals.

That said, UK adults eat around 22 million takeaways each week, with Chinese being the most popular. Judging by these findings, it seems there is an urgent need to drastically cut salt levels in these meals.

Why is too much salt bad for us?
Too much salt can contribute to raised blood pressure, which increases the risk of stroke and heart disease.

In the UK, we are currently eating more salt than is recommended, averaging 8.1g per day (1.3 teaspoons of salt, about a third more than the maximum recommendation). This is largely due to the high amounts of salt hidden in the food we buy, for which this analysis of Chinese meals provides further support.

The good news is this average intake has actually reduced by 15% over the last decade, primarily due to product reformulation. Now we need to go further.

Is the government taking enough action reduce salt?

  • Public Health England have been encouraging the food industry to cut salt levels in food. However, so far there has been little action, with no progress report on whether the last set of salt targets (due to have been met by the end of 2017) have been reached, nor any plans to set new targets.
  • As part of this 19th Salt Awareness Week, Action on Salt are calling on Public Health England for immediate action – they want to focus on setting new salt targets, making front of pack labelling mandatory and would like to see warning labels on menus for dishes high in salt. More action is needed from the food industry and the out of home sector to reduce the amount of salt added, and to provide us with healthier choices lower in salt.
  • This week, Action on Salt are hosting a Parliamentary Reception at the House of Commons to discuss the future of salt reduction in the UK, with attendees from the Department of Health, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and the food industry.

Sonia Pombo, Campaign Manager for Action on Salt stated: “Our data shows that food can be easily reformulated with lower levels of salt, so why haven’t all companies acted responsibly? The lack of front-of-pack colour coded labelling on branded products makes it incredibly difficult for consumers to make healthier choices and that is simply unacceptable.”

What can we do to keep our salt intakes low?

Food industry, including all food service providers

All responsible food providers should by now be carrying out at least a six-monthly nutrition and health check on their products and/or recipes, which includes the traffic light coding in order to highlight which ones need to be placed into a programme for reformulation.

At Nutrilicious, we have enjoyed helping numerous food service providers and manufacturers with this ongoing check along with nutrition and advice for ongoing product reformulation and development. If your company or organisation products or recipes need a nutrition and health check we would be delighted to help.

Taking personal responsibility

We should all be keeping salt to a minimum in our diets. For tips and advice on how to do this see:

Clearly, reducing intake of pre-packaged foods and takeaways is important for reducing salt intake, as shown in this analysis.

In the case for ready-made foods, being aware of what the labels mean can help with making wiser choices. For salt, a product is considered high in salt if it contains more than 1.8g salt per portion or if it is over 1.5g salt per 100g of the product.

Takeaway messages
This analysis highlights that salt levels can be extremely high in Chinese takeaway meals and supermarket ready meals. The relevance of reducing salt intake is paramount; each 1g reduction in daily salt intake prevents 7,000 deaths, 4,000 of which are premature, from strokes and heart disease.

We are pleased to see Action on Salt calling on Public Health England to take more action in this issue. Key messages for healthy eating apply to us all: eat a balanced diet, with plenty of fruit and vegetables, wholegrains and less processed foods and takeaways. This can help lower not only salt, but also sugar, fats and saturated fats; all of which in too high amounts can have negative health effects.

Following this advice – alongside other healthy lifestyle decisions such as keeping physically active – can help keep us in good health and reduce the chances of developing negative health effects such as obesity, heart disease and cancer.

 

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New Public Health England report calls for calorie reduction: Nutrilicious News Digest

New Public Health England report calls for calorie reduction: Nutrilicious News Digest

This week, Public Health England published a new report into calorie consumption, calling on food makers to cut calories in the products to help in the combat against obesity. The findings were discussed by the BBC, the Daily Mail and the Guardian, among many others.

Key points of the report include:

  • New evidence highlighting overweight or obese boys and girls consume up to 500 and 290 calories too many each day respectively
  • A challenge to the food industry to reduce calories in products consumed by families by 20% by 2024
    • This will include 13 types of savoury, processed foods such as pizzas, ready meals, ready-made sandwiches, meat products and savoury snacks.
    • Food companies can achieve this by either 1) reducing portion sizes, 2) reformulation of products or 3) signposting to lower calorie options already available.

According to PHE, “If the 20% target is met within 5 years, more than 35,000 premature deaths could be prevented and around £9 billion in NHS healthcare and social care costs could be saved over a 25 year period.”

Alongside the report comes the launch of the One You campaign, encouraging adults to consume 400 calories at breakfast, and 600 each for lunch and dinner, plus a couple of healthy snacks in between. This comes as adults consume 200 to 300 calories in excess each day.

  • Major high street brands are partnering with PHE on the campaign (including Greggs, Starbucks, McDonalds and Subway), helping show consumers which meals can meet the 400-600-600kcal mark. Total daily calorie intake recommendations remain at 2,000kcal for women and 2,500kcal for men.
  • The Only You Easy Meals app gives ideas for what could fit into this (also see our examples listed further below).

This new plan from the Government comes on top of the sugar levy which comes into force next month and the sugar reduction programme. Read more about both here


Behind the headlines: the Nutrilicious dietetic view

The battle against being overweight or obese is an important one:

  • In the UK, two thirds of adults and one third of children are classed as ‘overweight’ (Body Mass Index over 25kg/m2) or ‘obese’ (Body Mass Index over 30kg/m2).
  • Overweight and obesity can have a serious impact on health and increase the risk of:
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Musculoskeletal disorders (like osteroarthritis)
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Some types of cancer (such as breast cancer, endometrial and bowel cancer)
    • Psychological problems

Source: World Health Organisation

While we hope the new plan by the government will help with the obesity battle, there are some points to consider when going through the plans:

  1. Cutting foods by 20% in calories – This is a voluntary target and so unfortunately there is no guarantee food companies will actually respond to these targets. However, PHE have stated that if there is little response, they will ‘name and shame’ the brands that are not co-operating and they would then consider asking the Government to legislate.
  2. The 400-600-600 tip

This could be a useful way to help people stay more on track at mealtimes; it is simple approach and easy to remember. Here are a here are a few examples from the Only You App

400kcal breakfast

600kcal lunch 600kcal dinner
Banana porridge made with milk and oats with raspberry mash Beans on wholegrain toast with mushrooms, tomatoes and peppers Chicken and vegetable parcels with noodles or potatoes
Traffic light omelettes with mixed peppers Salmon and cucumber wholewheat wraps with watercress

 

Lentil and vegetable cobbler
Toasted oats with yogurt, apple and grapes Wholegrain pitta pizza with with mushrooms, tomatoes and light mozzarella New potato and tuna salad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

However, while it’s suggested just as a guide, men require more calories than women… is it appropriate to apply such advice to both? Using the 400-600-600 calorie rules, this would leave men with 900 calories left within their recommended daily allowance for snacks. Would you say this was the best approach?The “guide” element in our view will need to be emphasised much more in the communications.

  1. Nutrient intake
    It’s good to be calorie aware and know rough guides, but sometimes the higher calorie option could be healthier than the lower calorie option. What calorie counting does not do is consider nutrient intake of a meal nor the balance of different foods in a meal, which is a major drawback of the approach.

To give a breakfast example, a white bacon roll (about 290 calories) offers little beneficial nutrition but could come in at lower calories than a bowl of porridge topped with a piece of sliced fruit and a handful of nuts (about 400 calories). The latter offers a healthier source of protein and fats from the nuts compared to processed meat, plus a portion of fruit. The porridge would help contribute to our fibre much more than the roll – and in the UK, the current average fibre intake needs to increased by 60% to be meeting the UK recommendations.

So while we may reduce calorie consumption, we may then lose something else that is good for our health (e.g. fibre). The approach in fact has the potential to be counterproductive if we choose a meal that is lower in quality, causing excess snacking if, for example, you didn’t have enough fibre in the meal to fill you up.

It’s great that the supporting app and website help teach more about healthy choices; hopefully those who decide to follow 400-600-600 will take the advice on board. It will be important for PHE to monitor the uptake and how healthy the choices will be and for us as public health advisers to be aware of these results.

  1. There is the suggestion and worry that such rules with calories could create unhealthy relationships with food for some.
  2. Finally there is no magic bullet to the obesity crisis. It  continues to require large scale urgent multi-pronged approaches to be overcome and we must not loose sight of this which know from unanimous research including the game changing McKinsey Global Institute Report on overcoming obesity, that has yet to be truly taken on board by any overweight nation.

Takeaway message

This is an important new report and initiative from Public Health England which overall we welcome and hope alongside other initiatives already started as well as those yet to come will help to make a difference to the current obesity crisis. We look forward to supporting the initiative in the context of what is also eaten in our communications alongside other strategies dependent on the audiences that we are influencing. In the meantime we also hope that this initiative will be communicated and closely measured by PHE in the context of the above concerns as WHAT we eat is of great value to our overall health and weight, not just how much we eat.

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Celebrate Plant Power Day!

Celebrate Plant Power Day!

We’re proud to support the nation’s first Plant Power Day, taking place on Wednesday, 7 March 2018Its aim is to encourage everyone to put plant-based foods first for all food and drink choices, at least for one day.

It’s easy to take part: whether you start your day with a smoothie or host a ‘planquet’ – a meal that puts plants first – making vegetables, fruit, wholegrains, pulses, legumes, nuts and seeds the star of the show. Breakfast, lunch or dinner with friends or family, or even just a small snack, you’ll help spread the word about the benefits of a plant-based diet.

Plant Power Day’s instigators, Alpro, are hosting a special Planquet in collaboration with cooking sensation BOSH! . Guests will enjoy watching the team create a three-course plant-based meal in an open kitchen in London, and tuck in to a delicious meal. There are still a few tickets available online

Plant-based eating doesn’t mean we have to give up meat and animal foods. Simply starting to add more plants to our meals can all help!

Why take part in Plant Power Day?

As we’ve posted on our recent blogs, plant-based diets are rising in popularity. We see this as a good thing because of the many benefits such a diet can bring. It’s great for our health, the planet and for economics.

Good for you
As a rule, plant-based foods tend to be:

  • Fibre filled – this means a good provider of fibre (our current fibre intake is 60% lower than it should be!)
  • Heart healthy – generally low in saturated fat, known as ‘the bad kind of fat’, and high in unsaturated fat, ‘the good kind’, to help maintain normal blood cholesterol levels
  • Packed with a wide range of vitamins and minerals

Good for the planet and economy
It may be surprising to know that the way we are currently producing and eating food and using the earth’s resources means that we would need two planets by 2030. This is clearly not sustainable.

Each person who puts plants first on Plant Power Day will*:

  • Save 1,500 litres of water, equivalent to:
    • Two weeks’ worth of showers[1]
    • Two years and eight months’ worth of drinking water[2]
    • 27 washing machine cycles
    • 150 toilet flushes
  • Reduce their carbon footprint by 2kg[3], equivalent to:
    • 5 miles of driving in a car
    • Two days’ worth of light from a lamp[4]
    • The energy required to make 1,064 cups of tea[5]

[1] 15 showers, 2 Based on an individuals’ consumption of 1.5L water per day = 1000 days’ worth of water, 3 2kg of CO2e, or carbon dioxide equivalent. The standard unit for measuring carbon footprints, 4 Based on a 60W bulb. 39gCO2e per hour. 5 Based on 8 cups of tea per kettle. Boiling one kettle = 15g CO2e


Ideas for the day

Have a think about the meals you eat on a typical day and how you could adapt them to be plant based. By experimenting with plant-based foods for Plant Power Day, you may be surprised at how satisfying and tasty the options can be.

  • Try swapping beef mince in a chilli or bolognese for soya mince or beans, lentils and chickpeas. Try this tasty recipe for a bolognese using lentils
  • Add beans, lentils or tofu to stews, soups and curries. Try the delicious sweet potato and chickpea curry (pictured above).
  • Include a sprinkling of nuts and seeds in your salads
  • Try a milkshake, latte or smoothie using fortified plant-based milks. Here is a collection of smoothie recipes from Alpro
  • Have a go at making some tasty falafels in a wholemeal pitta, like the oven-baked version by Dietician Anita Bean.
  • Use nut and seed butters on wholegrain crackers or on an apple for a healthy snack.

For more recipe inspiration, go to the Alpro website

Get involved and have fun giving your meals a makeover, putting plants FIRST. Please like and share this post, suggest your own favourite recipe and help spread the word!

Your chance to win

Try a new recipe or share one of your own favourites. Post a picture of your #planquet on Twitter and Instagram for a chance to win a hamper of the Alpro plant-based range, a KeepCup and a subscription to AllPlants. Put the plant-foods first and snap away!

 

 

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Showing restaurant menu’s calorie content can help lower intake: Nutrilicious News Digest

Showing restaurant menu’s calorie content can help lower intake: Nutrilicious News Digest

This week, the Daily Mail and the Independent reported that showing the calorie content of meals in restaurants can help lower people’s calorie intake.

This is based on a systematic review of 28 studies, which concluded that nutritional labelling on restaurant menus can reduce the amount of energy (i.e. calories) purchased.

Overall, it was found that nutritional labelling could reduce calorific intake by up to 12% – around 72 calories for a typical 600kcal meal. That’s equivalent to three boiled new potatoes or around 150ml of juice.


Behind the headlines: the Nutrilicious dietetic view

This study is very relevant, considering that on average we eat out for around a quarter of our meals. These meals can often be served as large portions and can be high in sugar and salt.

More and more restaurants in the UK are now providing the nutritional values of meals, which are often available online. They include Nandos, Starbucks, Prezzo, Wagamama, Zizzis, Giraffe and many more. However, previous research has only shown mixed results as to the effects of having the nutritional values available.

There are some limitations to the review – many of the individual studies it’s based on were graded as poor quality. Nevertheless, it provides evidence that displaying nutritional values to restaurant menus may help to lower calorie intake in individuals.

Another weapon in the battle against obesity
Just this week, Cancer Research UK released a report showing that on current trends 70 per cent of millennials – those born between the early 1980s to mid-1990s – will be overweight or obese by the age 35 to 45.That’s more than any other generation since records began. The UK is already the most overweight nation in Western Europe, with obesity rates rising even faster than in the US. We know definitively from the McKinsey Global Institute Report on Overcoming Obesity: an initial economic analysis that we need as many nudge strategies as possible to help overcome this very serious obesity issue.

Professor Theresa Marteau, the review’s lead author and head of the Behaviour and Health Research Unit at Cambridge University, summed it up: “This evidence suggests that using nutritional labelling could help reduce calorie intake and make a useful impact as part of a wider set of measures aimed at tackling obesity. There is no magic bullet to solve the obesity problem, so while calorie labelling may help, other measures to reduce calorie intake are needed.”

Her thoughts are echoed by many experts. Professor Ian Caterson, president of the World Obesity Federation, stated: “Energy labelling has been shown to be effective – people see it and read it and there is a resulting decrease in calories purchased. Combined with a suite of other interventions, such changes will help slow and eventually turn around the continuing rise in body weight.”

Sue Davies, Which? food policy expert, says it’s not just the experts who believe access to more information is important: “This research highlights the value of calorie information and why it is so important that it is provided more widely for people when eating out. In a recent Which? survey, 63% of people agreed that calorie information should be provided on the food in cafes and restaurants for transparency.”

The United States is leading the way on this front: the Food and Drug Administration recently implemented a policy whereby restaurants with 20 or more locations must show calorie counts on their menus from May 2018. It will be interesting to monitor the impact.

Takeaway message
There are many measures that are needed to help reduce obesity, and the serious health issues that it causes. Ensuring nutritional values are available to consumers may be a simple strategy amongst many that are needed to help individuals take steps to make wiser meal choices.

There are other steps we can take to help us make healthier choices when eating out. The NHS provides some useful advice and tips

At Nutrilicious, we enjoy helping all organisations to implement, measure and communicate nudge strategies to help the nation overcome the urgent problem of obesity. If you would like to discuss how your organisation could contribute, please get in touch – we would be more than happy to discuss and help.

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Ultra-processed foods linked to cancer: Nutrilicious News Digest

Ultra-processed foods linked to cancer: Nutrilicious News Digest

Popular in the news this week is the story linking eating ‘ultra-processed’ foods and cancer, as reported by the Independent (‘Processed food, sugary cereals and sliced bread may contribute to cancer risk, study claims‘) the BBC the Daily Mail and The Guardian.

These headlines are based on a study published in the British Medical Journal this month. In the study, foods were classified based on the NOVA system, which relates to the nature, extent and purpose of food processing. Those falling under the category of ‘ultra-processed’ include:

  • Mass-produced bread and buns
  • Sweet or savoury packaged snacks including crisps, chocolate bars and sweets
  • Sodas and sweetened drinks
  • Meatballs, poultry and fish nuggets
  • Instant noodles and soups
  • Frozen or shelf-life ready meals
  • Foods made mostly or entirely from sugar, oils and fats

Study details and findings
A cohort of 105,000 people were followed for an average of five years. A 10% increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet was associated with a significant 12% increase in the risk of overall cancer and 11% in the risk of breast cancer.

Alongside the original study, the British Medical Journal have also published an editorial further explaining the findings.


Behind the headlines: the Nutrilicious dietetic view

Limitations of the study
While this story has been heavily publicised, there are several limitations of the study which mean we cannot draw firm conclusions:

  • Those who ate a lot of ultra-processed foods had other behaviours that have been linked to cancer which could skew the results. They include being more likely to smoke, being less active, consuming more calories overall and more likely to be taking the oral contraceptive. The researchers stated that their impact ‘cannot be entirely excluded’.
  • Cause and effect cannot be established for an observational study: we cannot say that ‘ultra-processed foods have caused the increase in cancer’. It is an association found.
  • The term ‘ultra-processed’ is still somewhat vague, so it’s difficult to establish which specific foods might be responsible for the increased cancer risk, and why.
  • The participants were mainly women who had decided to take part in a health and diet study themselves, so were likely to be interested in their health. This means the sample may not be highly representative of the general public.

That said, we can give credit to the large sample size used in the study giving more reliability to the findings.

Response from Cancer UK
Helping to put this study into context, Professor Linda Bauld from Cancer Research UK responded: “It’s already known that eating a lot of these foods can lead to weight gain, and being overweight or obese can also increase your risk of cancer, so it’s hard to disentangle the effects of diet and weight.”

She also said the study was a ‘warning signal to us to have a healthy diet’ but individuals should not worry about eating a bit of processed food ‘here and there’ as long as they were getting plenty of fruit, vegetables and fibre.

So, can we reduce the risk of cancer?
It’s estimated that one in two people will develop cancer at some point in their lives. Whilst some risk factors for cancer are non-preventable (such as genetics), there are still lots of things we can do to help reduce our risk:

  • Eating a healthy, balanced diet
  • Limiting red meat and avoiding processed meats
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Abstaining from smoking
  • Keeping alcohol intakes below government guidelines
  • Protecting your skin from sun damage
  • Knowing your body (e.g. checking for lumps)

For more details on all of the above, go to the National Health Service. The World Cancer Research Fund also carry out a continuous review of the scientific evidence into the subject of diet, lifestyle and cancer risk. Read their cancer prevention recommendations.

Takeaway message
This study does not allow us to draw firm conclusions about ultra-processed foods and cancer. However, we should certainly be reminded of the importance of diet and lifestyle in cancer prevention.

After smoking, excess weight is one of the biggest causes of cancer and it has also been estimated that about one third of cancers could be prevented by changing our diet and lifestyle. This includes being a healthy weight, following a healthy diet and engaging in physical activity.

What changes could you make to help reduce your risk?

Reference: Macmillan Cancer and Cancer Research UK

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